|Hollyhock leaf showing orange fungal structures and something small indicated by a red arrow...|
|Elongate orange fungal structures on the petiole. These are blister-like and the dark orange masses are spores that have become exposed as the blisters have ruptured.|
|On the leaf blade, similar (but more globular) spore-filled structures are seen (red arrows), while some appear greyer in colour (blue arrow).|
|Small (3 mm long) leafhopper on the hollyhock leaf. See below for the meaning of the red arrows and circle.|
- The three apical forewing veins (indicated by red arrows in the above photo) join the same cell (indicated by the red circle), noting that two of the veins merge to form a 'Y'.
- In the same photo, you can see the white 'waxy area' on the front edge of the forewing. Just behind thisthere is an irregularly shaped black spot cut into two by a pale wing vein. In some species this spot marges into one.
- In side view the front of the face (running down to the piercing mouthparts) is flat without a clear angle part of the way down (see top photo below).
- The pattern on the pronotum is distinctive - two clear black dots near the front edge with fuzzy longitudinal brown marks attached to them, plus other smaller black dots to the sides (see lower photo).
- The pattern on the head shows a triangle of three large black spots; the single rear spot does not have a dent in its front edge.
- The front of the 'face' is not clearly shown here, but in the above photo you can just see that there are two more black spots in front of the three on the head, but not another pair further to the side by the eyes.
|Side view of the leafhopper showing the flat front to the 'face'.|
|More-or-less dorsal view of the leafhopper showing the patterns on the head and pronotum.|
Chinery, M. (1986). Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe. Collins, London.
Le Quesne, W.J. & Payne, K.R. (1981). Cicadellidae (Typhlocybinae) with a checklist of the British Auchenorhyncha (Hemiptera, Homoptera). Royal Entomological Society Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 2(2c): 1-95.
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P. (2011). British Plant Galls (2nd ed.). FSC, Shrewsbury.